The eukaryotic cells undergoes a series of coordinated events to ensure faithful replication of their genome. This chain of events, called the ‘cell cycle’, ensures the correct segregation of genetic material in the two daughter cells. A disruption of these events may lead to cell death or oncogenic transformation. Hence, the processes of cell cycle are carefully regulated.
Elucidating the role of effector proteins in cell cycle progression
Cell cycle and cancer:
Key regulators of cell cycle play a central role in tumor development as well. For example, deregulation of the Rb-E2F pathway is one of the hallmarks of human cancers. Many genes involved in basic cell cycle processes are differentially expressed in more proliferative tumors. Characterization of the function of such genes vis-a-vis cell cycle is a critical step in understanding the basic cell cycle processes, and their role in cancer.
MLL, the trithorax ortholog, is a well-characterized H3K4 methyltransferase that was first identified for its involvement in chromosomal translocations associated with acute leukemia in infants and adults. Later studies revealed its crucial role in proper regulation of the Hox genes, hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and progenitor cell expansion during embryonic development.
MLL’s role as a histone methyltransferase in gene activation and in leukemic cells is extensively studied. However, the functions of MLL in cellular processes like cell-cycle regulation are not well allocated. Understanding how MLL regulates essential processes such as cell proliferation and genomic stability may provide a better understanding of its pathological condition.
Histone-modifying enzymes moonlight in mitosis to regulate chromosome congression
Understanding the regulation of non-coding RNA transcription in repeat regions
How HMTs regulate signalling pathways for cytoskeleton, cell shape and cell migration